In nature, pheromones are powerful agents driving reproduction and perpetuation of the species.
In 1986, the first human double blind, placebo controlled experiments located pheromones in underarm sweat extracts of sexually active fertile-aged men and women1.
Subsequently, the Athena Institute synthesized separate male and female sex attractant formulas as fragrance additives worn daily on the face.
Three double blind, placebo controlled trials have been completed:
* The Philadelphia trial tested the male formula on 38 men 26 to 42 years old.2
* The female formula was independently tested at San Francisco study on 36 women 19 to 48 years old.3
*The female formula was independently tested in 44 postmenopausal women 47 to 75 in Boston.4
A similar protocol was followed for each trial to provide prospectively recorded sociosexual behavioral monitoring of daily fragrance use during 2 baseline weeks and 6 experimental weeks.
To avoid the potential for menses abstinence to obscure effects, the San Francisco researchers expanded the experimental period to 9 weeks; testing 3 postmenses weeks from the last 2 cycles.3
Each study found that a greater proportion of pheromone than placebo users increased over their own individual baseline weekly frequency in sociosexual behaviors.
The biggest effects were:
* Sexual intercourse in the Philadelphia study of fertile-aged men (p < .01)
* Sexual intercourse in the San Francisco study of fertile-aged women (p < .01)
* Petting/kissing/affection in the Boston study of postmenopausal women (p < .02)
In the San Francisco study, pheromonal effects strengthened with continued use: “Significant effects appeared to occur within the first cycle and the proportion of women recording effects increased by the second cycle.”3
Here we examine post hoc whether the same strengthening phenomenon occurred in the Philadelphia and Boston studies.
We hypothesize that pheromonal effects do strengthen with continued daily use.
Materials and Methods:
Subjects had recorded behavior daily and faxed their calendars weekly2.4 . After a 2-week baseline period they returned with their chosen fragrance and 5 ml of either placebo or test pheromone was added to 55 ml of their preferred fragrance. The chosen fragrance was worn daily throughout the entire 8 weeks; this provided both baseline and experimental phase exposure to the same preferred fragrance.
Design: Using tabulated records of the daily calendars, data were transposed to the number of days per week a behavior had been prospectively recorded. We used Chi Square, one-tailed.
* For men we tested sexual intercourse.
* For postmenopausal women we tested petting, kissing and affection